Any provider that transmits any information in electronic form (doctors, clinics, hospitals, surgical centers, psychologists, dentists, chiropractors, nursing homes, assisted living, pharmacies, etc.) is a covered entity under HIPAA and, therefore, must comply with HIPAA laws and regulations.
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 was passed by Congress in order to require the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to develop national rules for the protection of electronic healthcare information.
The rules mandated that states adopt these federal protections. The HI-TECH act, a part of HIPAA, also known as the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 was adopted as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.