We hopefully learn from our mistakes. But, it is far better to learn from other people’s errors and avoid them in the first place. In nearly 40 years of R&D in the pharmaceutical industry, I’ve made--and seen-- some doozies— technical errors, miscommunications, strategic planning oversights, and quite a few “political” blunders. Many, if not all, were preventable. All were costly! For example, over a multi-year period, our manufacturing plant had an occasional release-assay failure, for commercial heparin in intravenous bags. The plant did not consider it a serious problem because re-testing, with a larger sample size, nearly always was successful; the problem was attributed to assay-error and most of those lots were released. Suddenly, every batch failed. It was only then, that the Manufacturing Group got our R&D involved.